We have learned how the world’s pigment cells are affected by high temperatures.
A group of researchers led by Dr. Marni L. Leibovitz of Stanford University has been working on the effect of the Sun on the color of pigments for decades.
In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they show that the Sun can change the color structure of a pigment cell and alter the chemistry of its molecules.
The study could help to better understand how sunscreens and sun filters work.
“The sun has long been suspected to affect pigments and the molecules that they are made of, so it is exciting to find a mechanism that could be used to understand these changes,” said Dr. Leibertz.
“We think that this study provides some new insights into how sun cells operate, and that the sun’s effects on pigments are the basis for our understanding of how it affects our skin.”
A sun-induced color change has been known for centuries, but it is only recently that researchers have discovered that pigments have a natural way of reacting to light and changing the structure of their molecules.
That is, the changes in color are caused by an interaction between two molecules, and the reactions of those molecules are linked to the reaction of the pigment cells.
In order to understand the effects of the sun, researchers need to know how these two molecules interact to create an effect.
“Our study is an important step towards that goal,” said lead author Dr. L. Alexei Tsiolkovsky, a doctoral student in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Stanford.
“Our data clearly show that suns color changes are related to their interaction with the cell’s reaction, and this is an essential step in understanding how the sun works to control our skin color.”
“Pigments, like all other organic compounds, react to sunlight with oxygen, so we know that a reaction involving oxygen is required to create the color change.
This study adds further support to our understanding that sunscowers are the main contributors to sun-related color changes,” he added.
The study was led by Leibow and his team of researchers from Stanford University, Columbia University, the University of Southern California and the University at Albany in New York State.
The research team used fluorescent light to detect changes in a number of pigment cells, including melanin and melanin derivatives, to understand how the pigment molecule reacts to sunlight and what its structure is like.
The researchers also used an atomic force microscope to determine how the color changes on the pigment molecules.
The researchers found that a small number of the cell-specific molecules were affected by the Sun’s ultraviolet light, while others were unaffected.
They found that the melanin-producing cells reacted differently to the UV light than the melanins, which are responsible for the coloration of the skin.
The changes were most pronounced on melanin derivative molecules, which have a structure called a methyl group attached to them.
In this image, a melanin compound is shown on the upper right corner of a melanine derivative molecule.
The structure of these molecules shows their ability to bind to an organic molecule called the anhydrocarbon.
They act as a photoattractor, converting the UV energy to heat.
The color change is seen as a “transition” in the structure.
A transition occurs when an organic substance binds to a molecule, and then it undergoes a chemical change in which it becomes more polar and emits light.
In the case of pigmented melanin, this changes the molecular structure of the molecule.
This transition can be triggered by either a chemical reaction or an ionic reaction.
The process is called an ionomeric reaction, which occurs when two molecules bond together.
A methyl group is attached to a hydroxyl group, which is the opposite of a hydoxyl group.
The structure of melanin is shown in the lower left corner.
The shape of the hydroxyleptone is shown by a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon atom.
Hydroxyl and hydoxyleptones are two groups of atoms with similar structures.
The results showed that pigmented pigment molecules react differently to UV light.
They also show that these pigment molecules are responsible in part for the changes that occur during the process of the color transformation.
“This study shows that the pigmented cells are responsible, and they are a major player in the reaction that results in color change,” said L. Alexandra Tsiolovky, an associate professor in the School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering at Stanford University.
“These findings could also be used in the development of sunscreen products and in skin care products to reduce the risk of skin cancer,” she added.###”This research is important for understanding the effects and mechanisms of sunscattering and to better predict the effects that will occur with future sun exposure,” said co-author Dr. Paul S. Kowalczyk, also from Stanford.###The study is published in PNAS